For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope.
Romans 15:4



 A Bible Study - Commentary by Jim Melough

Copyright 2002 James Melough

5:1.  “Hear ye this word which I take up against you, even a lamentation, O house of Israel.”

The prophet declares his intention to continue, as God’s spokesman, exposing Israel’s many sins, while at the same time uttering a dirge, and thus making it clear that there was no hope for the rebellious nation - she was as good as dead, having crossed over the invisible line which separates God’s mercy from His righteous wrath.

While, however, there was no hope for the nation, salvation, then as now, was available to repentant individuals who would forsake their sin, and trust in God.

Her fate is simply a foreshadowing of that which is about to overtake today’s even more sinful world in the fast approaching Tribulation.  She too has passed beyond the pale of mercy.

5:2.  “The virgin of Israel is fallen; she shall no more rise; she is forsaken upon her land; there is none to raise her up.”

Clearly the word “virgin” describes her state when God first redeemed her to Himself out of Egyptian bondage.  That one-time virgin nation had become an ungrateful, idolatrous harlot, worthy only of death. 

Some understand the term “virgin” to refer to her state as a nation which had not yet been conquered.

“... she shall no more rise” must be understood in context.  The nation, as represented by that sinful generation, would be destroyed; but other sinful generations would arise, each one having within it a small believing remnant, as did that generation addressed by Amos, and out of the Tribulation judgments God will yet bring forth a repentant, converted Israel, a remnant, that will inherit millennial and also eternal blessings.

Other generations did in fact arise, one of them being that which rejected and crucified the Lord, and which was also destroyed in AD 70.  And for the past two thousand years generation has succeeded generation; each one sinful and unbelieving, but having within it a small believing remnant, the one upon which the world today should focus its attention being that which has been regathering in Israel since 1948, for Scripture makes it clear, see Mt 24, that that generation will be the one to be the vortex of the terrible Tribulation judgments, out of which will emerge the new believing Israel that will enter the Millennium.

It is to be noted that Israel’s past judgments - the Assyrian and Babylonian captivities, those suffered under Antiochus Epiphanes, and at the hand of Rome under Titus in AD 70, are themselves foreshadowings of that final and now imminent Tribulation judgment which will destroy, not only the present unbelieving generation of Israel, but of the Gentile nations as well.  Out of that destruction, however, God will bring a believing remnant, not only of Israel, but also of the Gentile nations, they being those who will remain on the earth to enjoy Christ’s millennial reign.

Under the figure of a dying woman, lying on the ground, with none to help her, God presents us with a picture of the Israel to whom Amos spoke.  The nation was as good as dead already.  Nothing could avert the judgment of the Almighty.

Spiritually blind eyes fail to see that today’s corrupt world is also set before us in that dramatic picture, her judgment being no less certain than was that of Israel long ago.

5:3.  “For thus saith the Lord God; The city that went out by a thousand shall leave an hundred, and that which went forth by an hundred shall leave ten, to the house of Israel.”

This is the figurative description of the extent of the slaughter that would result from the coming judgment: out of a thousand fighting men who would go out against the enemy sent by God as His instrument, only a hundred would survive; and out of a hundred, only ten.

War, famine, and disease will decimate the population of the world in the coming Tribulation, e.g., the two hundred million-man army from the east will annihilate a third of the earth’s people, see Re 9:16-18.  In addition, millions more will be swept away by disease and famine.

It is a dreadful thing to make oneself the object of the wrath of Almighty God!

5:4.  “For thus saith the Lord unto the house of Israel, Seek ye me, and ye shall live:”

This is not to be understood as indicating that there was still opportunity for that generation of Israel to repent: there wasn’t.  Her doom was sealed.  It is, rather, the annunciation of the principle by which men can be saved; but the necessary repentance must come in God’s time, and the Israel to whom Amos spoke had already passed beyond that time.  God’s priceless gift of life was no longer available to that unrepentant generation.

The same state marks our present evil world.  A few individuals here and there are being saved, but they are pitifully few.  The vast majority of the world’s population is in  exactly the same spiritual state as was the Israel to whom Amos spoke.  Look at the magnificent “temples” erected by the worshipers of Mammon - the palatial buildings housing the giant corporations devoted to the ruthless accumulation of wealth. 

Consider the equally magnificent structures devoted to the worship of the goddess Pleasure - the ballparks, the football stadiums, the various other sports arenas.  View the theaters which accommodate the devotees of music, dance, stage and screen, etc., all part of the worship of Pleasure. 

Nor should we overlook the hallowed halls of learning.  While most are less palatial than those just mentioned, they make up in size what they lack in grandeur, many of them having student populations equal to that of some towns or small cities.  The worshipers of Learning are no less numerous and devoted than are the votaries of Money and Pleasure.

And like the Israel rebuked by the prophet, in the midst of all this idolatry they still maintain the charade of also worshiping God, while at the same time outlawing prayer and the study of His Word in the schools!

5:5.  “But seek not Beth-el, nor enter into Gilgal, and pass not to Beer-sheba: for Gilgal shall surely go into captivity, and Beth-el shall come to nought.”

The Amplified translation of this verse is, “But seek not [the golden calf at] Bethel, nor enter into [idolatrous] Gilgal, and pass not over to [the idols of] Beer-sheba; for Gilgal shall surely go into captivity and exile, and Bethel [house of God] shall become Bethaven [house of vanity, emptiness, falsity and futility] and come to nothing.”

Were it not recorded in Scripture it would be difficult to believe that the places once associated with the worship of God should have become the centers of evil.  Bethel, meaning God’s house, where God had revealed Himself to Jacob, and which later became the place where the tribes of Israel gathered to present their worship, had become the place where they, now become idolatrous, bowed before a golden calf idol, and worshiped the Baalim, which was in reality to worship Satan.

What transformation had come to Gilgal!  It was the place where redeemed Israel, having crossed dry-shod over a miraculously divided Jordan, to enter Canaan, had set up the memorial cairn, where the rite of circumcision (the symbolic cutting off of the flesh) was renewed, where they first ate the corn of the land God had given them, and to which they constantly returned to offer thanks to Him for the victories given them in their wars with the Canaanites in the days of Joshua.  But another generation had replaced that early one, and they had forgotten all God’s blessings.  The evil deeds of the flesh, once symbolically cut off there, had now proliferated and were shamelessly practiced by priest and people alike.  The place that once spoke of reproach rolled away, had itself become a reproach!

Beer-sheba meaning well of the oath, the place associated with Abraham, the father of the nation, the friend of God, had likewise become a center of evil where Abraham’s descendants bowed to worship idols.

Israel’s sin has been duplicated by Christendom.  God’s earthly house, the professing but apostate church, now also bows before the false gods mentioned above.  The sacred rites - baptism and the Lord’s supper - appointed for the Church, and foreshadowed in the activity associated with Gilgal, have become a travesty.  (Baptism is symbolically portrayed in Israel’s crossing Jordan; and the Lord’s supper, in their eating the corn of Canaan).

What Beer-sheba portrays (the Scriptures which are the living water of the Word as ministered by the Holy Spirit), has fared no better in the hands of apostate Christendom, for it is either totally neglected, or made to justify every conceivable form of sin.  And as God’s judgment fell upon rebel Israel, so will it also just as surely fall upon this present evil world.

5:6.  “Seek the Lord, and ye shall live; lest he break out like fire in the house of Joseph, and devour it, and there be none to quench it in Bethel.”

The comments on verse four apply to the first part of this verse also.  The generation addressed by Amos had passed irrevocably beyond hope of mercy.

The nation Israel is often referred to in Scripture either as Jacob or Israel, but seldom as Joseph, and since God never acts capriciously, there must be a reason for His describing them here as “the house of Joseph.”  Connected with the name Israel is that which relates to the spirit; and with Jacob, what relates to the flesh; but Joseph appears to relate to Israel as she will be in the Tribulation and in the Millennium, for it isn’t difficult to see in the testings that marked the first part of Joseph’s life, foreshadowings, not only of what befell the Lord during His earthly life, but also of what will befall the believing remnant in the Tribulation.  Nor is it difficult to see in Joseph’s later exaltation, not only that of the Lord Jesus Christ, but of the believing remnant that will emerge from the Tribulation as the new Israel to which all the nations will be subject in the Millennium.

If this is correct, then the warning would be to millennial Israel, the necessity of that warning being revealed in the fact that even in that halcyon age there will develop also an apostate Israel, and apostate Gentiles, whose allegiance to God will be feigned, and whose destruction will be to perish as described in Re 20:9, “... and fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them.”

5:7.  “Ye who turn judgment to wormwood, and leave off righteousness in the earth,”

God’s warning is here directed to those who perverted justice, so that while the corruption of the law courts was as the bitter poison of wormwood to the helpless victims of the corrupt system, it would also be as poison to Israel: God was about to destroy her.

Another translation of “leave off righteousness in the earth,” is “You cast down righteousness to the earth,” in other words, righteousness meant nothing to them.  All they cared about were the accumulation of riches by fair means or foul, and the gratification of every lust.

5:8.  “Seek him that maketh the seven stars and Orion, and turneth the shadow of death into the morning, and maketh the day dark with night: that calleth for the waters of the sea, and poureth them out upon the face of the earth: The Lord is his name:”

It is small wonder that the science of astronomy has been largely discredited in the eyes of Christians, by the Satanic counterfeit, astrology, for careful scholars have provided abundant evidence that before there was written language God revealed Himself and His great plan of salvation in the constellations.  For those interested in studying this matter in more detail the following books will be very helpful: The Witness of the Stars by E.W. Bullinger and published by Kregel; The Gospel in the Stars by Joseph A. Seiss also published by Kregel; and God’s Voice in the Stars by Kenneth C. Fleming, published by Loizeaux Brothers.  I strongly recommend Fleming’s book because it is concise, free from unnecessary technical detail, and very easy to understand.

The prophet, with good cause, urges Israel and all men to seek to know the God Who has created the constellations, and placed them in just the right position in the heavens so that they display His wondrous plan of salvation through the vicarious death and resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ.

That same God is the One, Who through the death and resurrection of His Son, changes the darkness of death into the light of eternal life for everyone who trusts that Son as Savior.  But for those who refuse to avail themselves of His mercy He has also the power to change the brief day of earthly life into the unfathomable darkness of an eternal night in hell and the lake of fire.

He is the God Who causes the sea water to ascend into the atmosphere, where He purges it of its deadly salt, and causes it to fall back upon the earth as life-giving rain.  Nor do spiritually enlightened minds have any difficulty seeing in that process a typological picture of what occurs at conversion.  The sea’s restless waters represent earth’s unconverted masses, see Isa 57:20, “The wicked are like the troubled sea, when it cannot rest, whose waters cast up mire and dirt.”

That water drawn up out of the ocean into the realm of the air represents men and women born of the Spirit, and lifted up into the sphere of the Spirit at the moment of conversion; but then, like the literal water drawn up by evaporation, and returning in the form of rain and dew to bring life to the earth, so are believers sent back into the world to bring spiritual life to men and women through the Gospel. 

Some understand the reference to be to the flood of Noah’s day.

5:9.  “That strengtheneth the spoiled against the strong, so that the spoiled shall come against the fortress.”

“Spoiled” here refers not to people who have been wronged, but to forces such as violence, desolation, destruction, wasting, the ASV translation being, “... that bringeth sudden destruction upon the strong, so that destruction cometh upon the fortress.”  Phillips translates it, “He it is who flings ruin in the face of the strong, and rains destruction upon the fortress.”

God continued to warn the wicked nation of that day of the certainty of His judgment against them, and His warning is no less applicable to the wicked of this present generation.  Judgment for them is no less certain, coming in the form of the terrible impending Tribulation judgments.

5:10.  “They hate him that rebuketh in the gate, and they abhor him that speaketh uprightly.”

The gate was the place where justice was administered.  They hated honest judges and witnesses, and anyone who dared to denounce the pervasive evil.  Little has changed since then.

5:11.  “Forasmuch therefore as your treading is upon the poor, and ye take from him burdens of wheat: ye have built houses of hewn stone, but ye shall not dwell in them; ye have planted pleasant vineyards, but ye shall not drink wine of them.”

They had trodden down, or oppressed the poor, taking from them unjust taxes, and exorbitant interest on loans, in spite of the fact that God had forbidden the lending of money at usury.  By dishonest means the rich seized the lands of the poor, and then permitted them to work those lands, but only in exchange for an exorbitant share of the crops.

Out of their ill-gotten gains they had built themselves magnificent houses, and planted lush vineyards, but God assured them that they would neither continue to enjoy those houses, nor drink the wine from those vineyards.  He would deliver them and all that they had into the hands of their enemies.  Today’s corrupt society stands on the brink of similar judgment.

5:12.  “For I know your manifold transgressions and your mighty sins: they afflict the just, they take a bribe, and they turn aside the poor in the gate from their right.”

The God from Whose knowledge nothing can be hidden, was fully aware of all their sinful activity.  He beheld their persecution of the righteous; their bribery of the judges, and the eager acceptance of those bribes by the judges.  He beheld with righteous anger the failure of the venal judges to render justice to the poor in the law courts.  But, He will!  is the resounding answer to the question, “Shall not the judge of all the earth do right?” Ge 18:25.

5:13.  “Therefore the prudent shall keep silence in that time; for it is an evil time.”

Because that time was one in which evil men ruled, wise men kept silent.  The wicked were the powerful majority, and the iniquity so pervasive, that just men were powerless to stop the swiftly rising tide of evil; and so is it also in today’s world.  But every spring tide has its corresponding neap.  The evil of today’s world will reach its zenith under the rule of the Beast, but the end of the Tribulation will see the might of man shattered as the Lord returns in power and glory to judge the world, banish every foe, and inaugurate His millennial kingdom of righteousness and blessing.

5:14.  “Seek good, and not evil, that ye may live: and so the Lord, the God of hosts, shall be with you, as ye have spoken.”

“... as ye have spoken” is literally “as you say he is,” or “as you claim that he is.”  In spite of their claim that God was with them, He wasn’t, for He will never bless sin.  His command to them to seek good simply emphasizes that they were diligent in the pursuit of evil; and His statement “that ye may live” clearly implies that their continued pursuit of sin would bring death.  It is to be noted also that this is the declaration of a general principle, not of a possibility available to Israel nationally.  Repentant individuals could still be saved, but it was too late for the sinful nation to repent.  Her doom was irrevocable.

Christendom also claims that God is with them, but they are guilty of even greater wickedness than was the Israel addressed by Amos; and like Israel, their doom is also irrevocable, salvation being available only to the few who will repent and turn to God in obedient faith.

5:15.  “Hate the evil, and love the good, and establish judgment (justice) in the gate (the courts): it may be that the Lord God of hosts will be gracious unto the remnant of Joseph.”

This continues to be the annunciation of a principle, rather than the offer of possible blessing for Israel.  That generation had sinned away their day of grace.  They had passed for ever beyond hope of mercy.

“... the remnant of Joseph” relates to the small believing remnant within the apostate mass of the nation.  While they too would experience the effects of God’s judgment on the wicked nation, they had the assurance that their ultimate end would be blessed, that blessing being the same as will be enjoyed by every believer: it will be in resurrection in heaven.

The believing remnant of the Tribulation era will have the same experience: they will feel the effects of God’s judgments poured out on a wicked world, the living survivors being delivered at the Lord’s coming to inaugurate His millennial kingdom. 

It is the same with the small believing remnant of true believers within the professing but apostate mass of Christendom: they also experience the consequences of God’s punishment of the evil mass, but even in the midst of it they have the assurance of eternal bliss in resurrection, or deliverance at the Lord’s coming to rapture the Church.

5:16.  “Therefore the Lord, the God of hosts (armies), the Lord, saith thus; Wailing shall be in all streets; and they shall say in all the highways, Alas!  alas!  and they shall call the husbandman to mourning, and such as are skillful of lamentation to wailing.”

There would be no place where men could go to escape God’s judgment, for it would be in the cities, villages, highways, and countryside.  So numerous would be the dead that there would not be enough professional mourners to lead the wailing, so that even the farmers would be called upon to act as mourners.  On the day when Amos spoke, however, he seems to have been the only mourner.  The sinful nation didn’t believe that Divine judgment was about to destroy her.  She was at the zenith of prosperity and power.

A similar visitation is coming upon today’s apostate Christendom.

5:17.  “And in all the vineyards shall be wailing: for I will pass through thee, saith the Lord.”

Wine is a biblical symbol of joy, see e.g., Ps 104:15 “... wine that maketh glad the heart of man.”  The vineyards were normally the scene of joy, particularly at the time of the grape harvest, but for the apostate nation which had sealed her doom by refusal to repent, those days were gone.  Her laughter was about to be exchanged for tears and mourning.

A pleasure-crazed Christendom is about to have the same bitter experience.

5:18.  “Woe unto you that desire the day of the Lord! to what end is it for you?  the day of the Lord is darkness, and not light.”

In the context of this verse “the day of the Lord” is the day when Christ (Messiah) will return in glory to end the Tribulation, and inaugurate His millennial kingdom, and Israel foolishly believed that day was imminent.  That day, however, will be a day of light and gladness only for believers.  For unbelievers - and in spite of all their profession, that generation of Israel were unbelievers - it will be the day when they will be banished into the darkness and torment of hell to await their ultimate consignment to the eternal torment of the lake of fire.

5:19.  “As if a man did flee from a lion, and a bear met him; or went into the house, and leaned his hand on the wall, and a serpent bit him.”

In that day the unbeliever will be like a man running in terror from a lion, only to fall into the clutches of an angry bear; or like a man running into his own home, only to be bitten there by a snake.  In other words, that day will seal the unbeliever’s doom.  Instead of remaining on the earth to enjoy the Millennium, he will be cast into hell, and from there into the eternal torment of the lake of fire.

5:20.  “Shall not the day of the Lord be darkness, and not light?  even very dark, and no brightness in it?”

The vain expectation of the Israel addressed by Amos was of the coming of Messiah to deliver them and set up His earthly kingdom; but their expectation was a delusion.  When that day does come it will be to deliver the believing remnant of Israel and of the nations, but how different will be the fate of all unbelievers, both Jews and Gentiles!  They will never see the millennial kingdom, but will instead be cast into the torment of hell.

The same fate awaits unbelieving Christendom, but there is a difference between them and the Israel addressed by the prophet. That generation of Israel expected Messiah to come and set up the millennial kingdom; but the majority of Jews, and of those who comprise Christendom today, know nothing of the biblical Millennium.  They are looking to the schemes of the world’s politicians, educators, and scientists to bring in a glorious new world order where war will be unknown, where science will have conquered disease, where hunger will be banished, etc.  But a terrible awakening awaits them.  The biblical Millennium is a reality, and its inauguration imminent, but these dupes of Satan and of the world’s educational system will never see it.  First, the Church will be caught up to heaven (and it could be today); after a short interval the Tribulation will begin, the latter three and a half years of which will bring the destruction of the whole present world order; and out of that destruction Christ returning in power and glory, will bring in the glorious biblical Millennium.  And while the living believers from the Tribulation era will be enjoying the transformed earth, the unbelievers will be enduring the darkness and torment of hell.

5:21.  “I hate, I despise (reject) your feast days,, and I will not smell in your solemn assemblies.”

God was not impressed with Israel’s outward empty ritualistic worship, nor is He with that of Christendom.  What He seeks is the unfeigned love of an obedient life, yielded not out of slavish fear, but out of appreciation of Who and What He is, and out of gratitude for His love and kindness to us, as declared in the words of John, “We love him, because he first loved us,” 1 John 4:19.  The Lord Himself also declared willing obedience to be the most perfect expression of love, see John 14:15 and 21, “If ye love me, keep my commandments .... He that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me: and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself unto him.”  See also 1 Sa 15:22, “... hath the Lord as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the Lord?  Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams.”

“... I will not smell in your solemn assemblies” is also translated, “I will take no delight in...” and means simply that God rejected the whole hypocritical sham.  The smoke of offerings presented to Him as the expression of a heart filled with love, was as incense which delighted Him; but that of sacrifices offered ritualistically without love was a stench in His nostrils.

The great desire of David’s heart was that he be preserved from just such loveless ritualistic worship, see Ps 141:2, “Let my prayer be set forth before thee as incense; and the lifting up of my hands, as the evening sacrifice.”  It should be our prayer also.

5:22.  “Though ye offer me burnt offerings and your meat (meal) offerings, I will not accept them: neither will I regard the peace offerings of your fat beasts.”

Conspicuously absent is any mention of the Trespass and Sin offerings.

In 1 Sa 16:7 it is written, “... the Lord seeth not as man seeth; for man looketh on the outward appearance, but the Lord looketh on the heart.”  Israel’s observance of the outward form of worship might have impressed man, but God’s omniscient eye discerns what is in the heart, and as He looked into the hearts of the men of Israel, conspicuously absent was any trace of that essential element, love, and without it all the offerings Israel might bring were worthless.

5:23.  “Take away from me the noise of thy songs; for I will not hear the melody of thy viols (harps).”

The offering of the prescribed sacrifices was accompanied also by vocal and instrumental music, but this too Jehovah rejected, even though He Himself had originally ordained it, see e.g., 1 Chr 15:16,19.  No matter how costly the sacrifice, or magnificent the ritual, what is not impelled by love is worthless in God’s sight.

Spiritual minds will have no difficulty seeing how closely Israel’s pretentious but hypocritical worship is paralleled by that of today’s Christendom, nor should they have difficulty in seeing what an abomination all of it is to God.  The same judgment that ended the one will just as surely also end the other.

5:24.  “But let judgment (justice) run down as waters, and righteousness as a mighty stream.”

Jehovah was disgusted with the hypocritical charade which Israel mistook for worship; nor is He any less revolted by that of Christendom.  What He desired from Israel were the administration of justice according to His perfect standard, and an end to the venality that robbed the poor of justice.  He wanted grasping, heartless greed banished, and replaced with goodness and kindness flowing like a mighty river throughout the land.

He has the same desire for today’s world, nor will He rest until His desire has become reality, as it will in the Millennium as a result of the Tribulation judgments that will destroy the whole great edifice of the present evil world system.

5:25.  “Have ye offered unto me sacrifices and offerings in the wilderness forty years, O house of Israel?”

The question appears to be both rhetorical and ironic.  They had, of course, presented the prescribed offerings, but it is to be remembered that from the beginning idolatry lurked in their hearts as is evidenced by their worship of the golden calf even while Moses was up in the mountain receiving the tablets of the law shortly after their deliverance from Egypt, see Exodus 32.

The idolatry denounced by Amos was no new thing: it was in their hearts from the very beginning, as, in fact, it is in the heart of every man until banished by the new birth.  Throughout Israel’s history true worship was offered only by the believing remnant, a small minority within the apostate mass of the nation.  The rest of the people engaged outwardly in the same ritual, but with them it was only a ritual, and as soon as opportunity presented itself to worship gods conceived by their own evil imaginations, they seized it.  And as that first idolatrous generation had worshiped the calf made by Aaron, and had been prevented from entering Canaan, so now was this present idolatrous generation to be carried out of the land into captivity in Assyria.

5:26.  “But ye have borne the tabernacle of your Moloch and Chiun your images, the star of your god, which ye made to yourselves.”

Here God is declaring that even while Israel carried the Tabernacle with them through the wilderness, and engaged outwardly in the order of worship which He had prescribed, they - with the exception of the small believing remnant - hankered in their hearts after the worship of the gods they had worshiped in Egypt. 

Moloch (Molech) was an Ammonite god to whom children were sacrificed.  Some translations render Moloch as Sikkut or Sakkuth, also known as Adar, the Assyrian god of war and the chase.

Chiun or Kaiwan was the Assyrian name for the planet Saturn which was also an object of worship.

“... the star of your god” seems to be related to the fact that many of the stars were worshiped.  Their having borne the tabernacles of these so-called gods is understood by some to refer to their having carried away from conquered nations the idols of these gods, and adding them to those they already worshiped.

Relative to the universal idolatrous worship of the stars, it is instructive to note that in His naming and placing the twelve signs of the Zodiac, God has displayed symbolically in the heavens the story of the Gospel before there was written language, but Satan, through astrology, has sought to corrupt the message, see comments on verse 8.

5:27.  “Therefore will I cause you to go into captivity beyond Damascus, saith the Lord, whose name is The God of hosts.”

Because of idolatry Israel was to be carried away captive, “beyond Damascus” being literally Assyria which lay of course beyond Damascus.

Stephen in Acts 7:43 quotes these last two verses of Amos 5, but speaks of Babylon rather than Damascus, and he may have had in mind the later captivity of Judah by the Babylonians.

[Amos 6]


     Scripture portions taken from the Holy Bible, King James Version
© 2000-2005 James Melough